The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. As of November 2008, sources cite either 118 or 138 as the number of identified Egyptian pyramids. Most were built as tombs for the country’s Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.
The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The earliest among these is the Pyramid of Djoser, which was built c. 2630–2610 BC during the Third Dynasty. This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world’s oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry.
The papyrus of Egypt is most closely associated with writing – in fact, the English word ‘paper’ comes from the word ‘papyrus’ – but the Egyptians found many uses for the plant other than a writing surface for documents and texts. Papyrus was used as a food source, to make rope, for sandals, for boxes and baskets and mats, like window shades, material for toys such as dolls, as amulets to ward off throat diseases, and even to make small fishing boats.
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Red Sea Governorate is one of the 27 governorates of Egypt. Located between the Nile and the Red Sea in the southeast of the country, its southern border forms part of Egypt’s border with Sudan.